Until the 1950s, fashion clothing was predominately designed and manufactured on a made-to-measure or haute couture basis (French for high-sewing), with each garment being created for a specific client. A couture garment is made to order for an individual customer, and is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric, sewn with extreme attention to detail and finish, often using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Look and fit take priority over the cost of materials and the time it takes to make. Due to the high cost of each garment, haute couture makes little direct profit for the fashion houses, but is important for prestige and publicity.
"The footwear update this season is the square toe; from By Far to Gianvito Rossi’s two-tone boot to neutral hues at Neous and Bottega Veneta's mule," says von der Goltz. "Wandler’s new footwear line has landed already, with the square toe a key signature detail across all styles." Add that to the fact that everyone's already wearing the trend at Paris Fashion Week and you've got yourself a very big trend in the making.
To develop a successful design, balance and fitting garment, three dimensional prototypes are essential. Prototypes are also known as toiles. It is the correct distribution of the waist suppression. This method is used in order to cut or smooth away the excess fabric at the waist. Get a perfect shape of the garment to follow the natural curves of the figure, make darts, side seams and the hollow of the back.
Median annual wages for salaried fashion designers were $61,160 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $42,150 and $87,120. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $32,150, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $124,780. Median annual earnings were $52,860 (£40,730.47) in apparel, piece goods, and notions - the industry employing the largest numbers of fashion designers. As of 2016,a fashion designer's median annual salary was $65,170. High end designers can earn around $92,550. In 2016, 23,800 people were counted as fashion designers in the United States. 
Famous Italian fashion brands include Gucci, Armani, Prada, Dolce & Gabbana, Valentino, Bottega Veneta, Roberto Cavalli, Costume National, Brunello Cucinelli, Diesel, Etro, Fay, Fendi, Salvatore Ferragamo, Fiorucci, Genny, Iceberg, Kiton, La Perla, Loro Piana, Marni, Missoni, Moncler, Moschino, Richmond, Ermanno Scervino, Tod's, Trussardi, and Versace.
Rei Kawakubo went to university and studied art and literature, like a lot of bright girls do. But then she taught herself how to design, set up shop, and soon started to change the fashion world. In 1973, she created her own company, Comme des Garçons Co. Ltd in Tokyo and opened up her first boutique store in Tokyo in 1975. Starting with women’s clothes, Kawakubo added a men’s line in 1978. Comme des Garçons specializes in anti-fashion, austere, sometimes deconstructed garments.
In this stage fabric properties like its weight, tenacity, and construction are determined. Now-a-days fabrics are becoming smarter. For the textile development there are new terms are used such as, high performances, technical, intelligent and smart fabric. Some designers select these kinds of fabrics to show their creativity and present it on fashion show.
Jean-Paul Gaultier is a French fashion designer born on 1952 in Val-de-Marne, France. At age 18, he joined the house of Pierre Cardin before moving on to Jacques Esterel and Patou. The appearance of Gaultier’s collection was in 1976, but his own design house was only launched on 1982. Jean Paul Gaultier‘s sensual, irreverent style continually challenges stereotypical femininity, ignoring traditional gender roles by embracing androgyny and the freedom of sexuality. His style is known to challenge standard views of fashion.
Preppy girls, often named simply ‘preps’, love to rock a college-inspired wardrobe. Their hangers are lined side to side with girly blouses with matching collared tees as well as a-line skirts and tights. Her hair is almost always amped up with a cute little headband and she usually wears glasses- whether she really needs to or not! This style may appear geeky and slightly luxurious, but the look itself is really not expensive and extravagant at all.